Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Unfinished Blog-Post: Team Gallo

A long time ago I started some blog-posts, but never found the time nor energy to finish them. Now I have long lost interest in the matter and will publish them all "as is" – maybe someone will find these raw thoughts helpful.

The record of Harvey J. Alter with Gallo is rather shortish, but I would need more information about the relative importance of the studies:
1: Saxinger C, Alter HJ, Eichberg JW, Fauci AS, Robey WG, Gallo RC. Stages in the progression of HIV infection in chimpanzees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1987;3(4):375-85. PubMed PMID: 3482160.

2: Alter HJ, Eichberg JW, Masur H, Saxinger WC, Gallo R, Macher AM, Lane HC, Fauci AS. Transmission of HTLV-III infection from human plasma to chimpanzees: an animal model for AIDS. Science. 1984 Nov 2;226(4674):549-52. PubMed PMID: 6093251.

And Fauci – hmmm. There seem to be some people both in the HIV/AIDS and in the ME/CFS community who harbor some grudge against Fauci.

So let's see about Anthony S. Fauci and Gallo:
1: Fauci AS, Gallo RC, Koenig S, Salk J, Purcell RH. NIH conference. Development and evaluation of a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Mar 1;110(5):373-85. Review. PubMed PMID: 2464961.

2: Saxinger C, Alter HJ, Eichberg JW, Fauci AS, Robey WG, Gallo RC. Stages in the progression of HIV infection in chimpanzees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1987;3(4):375-85. PubMed PMID: 3482160.

3: Volkman DJ, Popovic M, Gallo RC, Fauci AS. Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus-infected antigen-specific T cell clones: indiscriminant helper function and lymphokine production. J Immunol. 1985 Jun;134(6):4237-43. PubMed PMID: 2580910.

4: Alter HJ, Eichberg JW, Masur H, Saxinger WC, Gallo R, Macher AM, Lane HC, Fauci AS. Transmission of HTLV-III infection from human plasma to chimpanzees: an animal model for AIDS. Science. 1984 Nov 2;226(4674):549-52. PubMed PMID: 6093251.

5: Popovic M, Flomenberg N, Volkman DJ, Mann D, Fauci AS, Dupont B, Gallo RC. Alteration of T-cell functions by infection with HTLV-I or HTLV-II. Science. 1984 Oct 26;226(4673):459-62. PubMed PMID: 6093248.
Not too long, the shared Gallo/Fauci record. But what is more likely: That he was critical of Gallo's contribution to HIV/AIDS research or that he supported Team Gallo (if only by inaction)? Whatever Fauci did or didn't do, it did not harm his rise to the top of the NIAID.

John Coffin is interesting, as he never authored together with Gallo. He seems to have taken more to the side of Team Science together with Montagnier instead:
1: Coffin J, Haase A, Levy JA, Montagnier L, Oroszlan S, Teich N, Temin H, Toyoshima K, Varmus H, Vogt P, et al.
Human immunodeficiency viruses.
Science. 1986 May 9;232(4751):697. PubMed PMID: 3008335.

2: Coffin J, Haase A, Levy JA, Montagnier L, Oroszlan S, Teich N, Temin H, Toyoshima K, Varmus H, Vogt P, et al.
What to call the AIDS virus?
Nature. 1986 May 1-7;321(6065):10. PubMed PMID: 3010128.
Still, I guess that John Coffin just thinks in scientific terms and is oblivious to the "politics" of his research field. It would be interesting to read these two papers to get a perspective on John Coffin, what exactly his position with regards to Team Gallo was – this would be interesting when reviewing how Team Gallo reacted when Coffin got involved in XMRV. What was Coffin's verdict on Gallo's contributions?

Not surprising is the record for Francis W. Ruscetti, as he has worked with Gallo for a long time:
1: Ruscetti FW, Morgan DA, Gallo RC. Functional and morphologic characterization of human T cells continuously grown in vitro. J. Immunol. 1977. 119: 131-138. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 1;179(3):1415-22. PubMed PMID: 17641005.

2: Ferrero D, Pregno P, Tarella C, Ruscetti FW, Pileri A, Gallo E. Trophoblast cell line conditioned medium for in vitro culture and antigenic characterization of acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells. Cancer Res. 1987 Dec 1;47(23):6413-7. PubMed PMID: 3499973.

3: Ruscetti FW, Robert-Guroff M, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Minowada J, Popovic M, Gallo RC. Persistent in vitro infection by human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) of normal human T-lymphocytes from blood relatives of patients with HTLV-associated mature T-cell neoplasms. Int J Cancer. 1983 Feb 15;31(2):171-80. PubMed PMID: 6600720.

4: Ferrero D, Tarella C, Gallo E, Ruscetti FW, Breitman TR. Terminal differentiation of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, in the absence of cell proliferation. Cancer Res. 1982 Nov;42(11):4421-6. PubMed PMID: 6957259.

5: Gootenberg JE, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. A biochemical variant of human T cell growth factor produced by a cutaneous T cell lymphoma cell line. J Immunol. 1982 Oct;129(4):1499-505. PubMed PMID: 6980938.

6: Gallo RC, Mann D, Broder S, Ruscetti FW, Maeda M, Kalyanaraman VS, Robert-Guroff M, Reitz MS Jr. Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) is in T but not B lymphocytes from a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Sep;79(18):5680-3. PubMed PMID: 6982476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC346968.

7: Tarella C, Ruscetti FW, Poiesz BJ, Woods A, Gallo RC. Factors that affect human hemopoiesis are produced by T-cell growth factor dependent and independent cultured T-cell leukemia-lymphoma cells. Blood. 1982 Jun;59(6):1330-6. PubMed PMID: 6979356.

8: Tarella C, Ferrero D, Gallo E, Pagliardi GL, Ruscetti FW. Induction of differentiation of HL-60 cells by dimethyl sulfoxide: evidence for a stochastic model not linked to the cell division cycle. Cancer Res. 1982 Feb;42(2):445-9. PubMed PMID: 6948604.

9: Nelli LC, Dalla-Favera R, Markham PD, Ruscetti FW, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Reitz MS. Restricted expression of integrated primate type-C virus (gibbon ape leukemia virus-simian sarcoma virus) proviral DNA in nonproductively infected human B lymphoblasts. Virology. 1982 Feb;117(1):195-206. PubMed PMID: 6278736.

10: Ruscetti FW, Chou JY, Gallo RC. Human trophoblasts: cellular source of colony-stimulating activity in placental tissue. Blood. 1982 Jan;59(1):86-90. PubMed PMID: 6274452.

11: Robert-Guroff M, Ruscetti FW, Posner LE, Poiesz BJ, Gallo RC. Detection of the human T cell lymphoma virus p19 in cells of some patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma and leukemia using a monoclonal antibody. J Exp Med. 1981 Dec 1;154(6):1957-64. PubMed PMID: 6274993; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2186543.

12: Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Reitz MS, Kalyanaraman VS, Gallo RC. Isolation of a new type C retrovirus (HTLV) in primary uncultured cells of a patient with Sézary T-cell leukaemia. Nature. 1981 Nov 19;294(5838):268-71. PubMed PMID: 6272125.

13: Gootenberg JE, Ruscetti FW, Mier JW, Gazdar A, Gallo RC. Human cutaneous T cell lymphoma and leukemia cell lines produce and respond to T cell growth factor. J Exp Med. 1981 Nov 1;154(5):1403-18. PubMed PMID: 6975346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2186515.

14: Salahuddin SZ, Markham PD, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Long-term suspension cultures of human cord blood myeloid cells. Blood. 1981 Nov;58(5):931-8. PubMed PMID: 6271310.

15: Posner LE, Robert-Guroff M, Kalyanaraman VS, Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Fossieck B, Bunn PA Jr, Minna JD, Gallo RC. Natural antibodies to the human T cell lymphoma virus in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas. J Exp Med. 1981 Aug 1;154(2):333-46. PubMed PMID: 6973601; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2186420.

16: Ruscetti FW, Collins SJ, Woods AM, Gallo RC. Clonal analysis of the response of human myeloid leukemic cell lines to colony-stimulating activity. Blood. 1981 Aug;58(2):285-92. PubMed PMID: 6972788.

17: Rho HM, Poiesz B, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Characterization of the reverse transcriptase from a new retrovirus (HTLV) produced by a human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell line. Virology. 1981 Jul 15;112(1):355-60. PubMed PMID: 6166122.

18: Markham PD, Ruscetti FW, Kalyanaraman VS, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Miller NR, Reitz MS, Salahuddin SZ, Gallo RC. Restricted expression of retrovirus nucleic acids and proteins in primate type C virus (gibbon ape leukemia virus-simian sarcoma virus)-initiated human B-lymphoblast cultures. Cancer Res. 1981 Jul;41(7):2738-44. PubMed PMID: 6265066.

19: Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Poiesz B, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Immunological properties of a type C retrovirus isolated from cultured human T-lymphoma cells and comparison to other mammalian retroviruses. J Virol. 1981 Jun;38(3):906-15. PubMed PMID: 6264163; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC171228.

20: Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Human T-lymphocyte growth factor: regulation of growth and function of T lymphocytes. Blood. 1981 Mar;57(3):379-94. Review. PubMed PMID: 7006707.

21: Reitz MS Jr, Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Characterization and distribution of nucleic acid sequences of a novel type C retrovirus isolated from neoplastic human T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Mar;78(3):1887-91. PubMed PMID: 6262827; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC319240.

22: Gallo RC, Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW. Regulation of human T-cell proliferation: T-cell growth factor and isolation of a new class of type-C retroviruses from human T-cells. Haematol Blood Transfus. 1981;26:502-14. PubMed PMID: 6274766.

23: Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Dec;77(12):7415-9. PubMed PMID: 6261256; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC350514.

24: Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Mier JW, Woods AM, Gallo RC. T-cell lines established from human T-lymphocytic neoplasias by direct response to T-cell growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Nov;77(11):6815-9. PubMed PMID: 6256763; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC350380.

25: Ruscetti FW, Mier JW, Gallo RC. Human T-cell growth factor: parameters for production. J Supramol Struct. 1980;13(2):229-41. PubMed PMID: 6972470.

26: Gallagher R, Collins S, Trujillo J, McCredie K, Ahearn M, Tsai S, Metzgar R, Aulakh G, Ting R, Ruscetti F, Gallo R. Characterization of the continuous, differentiating myeloid cell line (HL-60) from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 1979 Sep;54(3):713-33. PubMed PMID: 288488.

27: Collins SJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallagher RE, Gallo RC. Normal functional characteristics of cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after induction of differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide. J Exp Med. 1979 Apr 1;149(4):969-74. PubMed PMID: 219131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2184853.

28: Markham PD, Ruscetti F, Salahuddin SZ, Gallagher RE, Gallo RC. Enhanced induction of growth of B lymphoblasts from fresh human blood by primate type-C retroviruses (gibbon ape leukemia virus and simian sarcoma virus). Int J Cancer. 1979 Feb;23(2):148-56. PubMed PMID: 216638.

29: Collins SJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallagher RE, Gallo RC. Terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells induced by dimethyl sulfoxide and other polar compounds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 May;75(5):2458-62. PubMed PMID: 276884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC392573.

30: Gallo RC, Gallagher RE, Wong-Staal F, Aoki T, Markham PD, Schetters H, Ruscetti F, Valerio M, Walling MJ, O'Keeffe RT, Saxinger WC, Smith RG, Gillespie DH, Reitz MS Jr. Isolation and tissue distribution of type-C virus and viral components from a gibbon ape (Hylobates lar) with lymphocytic leukemia. Virology. 1978 Feb;84(2):359-73. PubMed PMID: 74897.

31: Ruscetti FW, Morgan DA, Gallo RC. Functional and morphologic characterization of human T cells continuously grown in vitro. J Immunol. 1977 Jul;119(1):131-8. PubMed PMID: 141483.

32: Morgan DA, Ruscetti FW, Gallo R. Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows. Science. 1976 Sep 10;193(4257):1007-8. PubMed PMID: 181845.

Mikovits connection to Ruscetti would make her part of Team Gallo:
1: Silverman RH, Das Gupta J, Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Mikovits JA. Partial retraction. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):176. PubMed PMID: 21998366.

2: Simmons G, Glynn SA, Komaroff AL, Mikovits JA, Tobler LH, Hackett J Jr, Tang N, Switzer WM, Heneine W, Hewlett IK, Zhao J, Lo SC, Alter HJ, Linnen JM, Gao K, Coffin JM, Kearney MF, Ruscetti FW, Pfost MA, Bethel J, Kleinman S, Holmberg JA, Busch MP; Blood XMRV Scientific Research Working Group (SRWG). Failure to confirm XMRV/MLVs in the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a multi-laboratory study. Science. 2011 Nov 11;334(6057):814-7. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 21940862.

3: Silverman RH, Das Gupta J, Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Mikovits JA. Partial Retraction. Science. 2011 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21940859.

4: Mikovits JA, Lombardi VC, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Ruscetti FW. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Virulence. 2010 Sep-Oct;1(5):386-90. PubMed PMID: 21178474; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3073172.

5: Mikovits JA, Huang Y, Pfost MA, Lombardi VC, Bertolette DC, Hagen KS, Ruscetti FW. Distribution of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) infection in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer. AIDS Rev. 2010 Jul-Sep;12(3):149-52. Review. PubMed PMID: 20842203.

6: Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Silverman RH, Mikovits JA. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):585-9. Epub 2009 Oct 8. Retraction in: Alberts B. Science. 2011 Dec 23;334(6063):1636. Partial retraction in: Silverman RH, Das Gupta J, Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Mikovits JA. Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):176. PubMed PMID: 19815723.

7: Taub DD, Mikovits JA, Nilsson G, Schaffer EM, Key ML, Petrow-Sadowski C, Ruscetti FW. Alterations in mast cell function and survival following in vitro infection with human immunodeficiency viruses-1 through CXCR4. Cell Immunol. 2004 Aug;230(2):65-80. PubMed PMID: 15598422.

8: Puri A, Rawat SS, Lin HM, Finnegan CM, Mikovits J, Ruscetti FW, Blumenthal R. An inhibitor of glycosphingolipid metabolism blocks HIV-1 infection of primary T-cells. AIDS. 2004 Apr 9;18(6):849-58. PubMed PMID: 15060432.

9: Muegge K, Young H, Ruscetti F, Mikovits J. Epigenetic control during lymphoid development and immune responses: aberrant regulation, viruses, and cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Mar;983:55-70. Review. PubMed PMID: 12724212.

10: Mikovits J, Ruscetti F, Zhu W, Bagni R, Dorjsuren D, Shoemaker R. Potential cellular signatures of viral infections in human hematopoietic cells. Dis Markers. 2001;17(3):173-8. PubMed PMID: 11790884.

11: Fang JY, Mikovits JA, Bagni R, Petrow-Sadowski CL, Ruscetti FW. Infection of lymphoid cells by integration-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 increases de novo methylation. J Virol. 2001 Oct;75(20):9753-61. PubMed PMID: 11559808; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC114547.

12: Ruff MR, Melendez-Guerrero LM, Yang QE, Ho WZ, Mikovits JW, Pert CB, Ruscetti FA. Peptide T inhibits HIV-1 infection mediated by the chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). Antiviral Res. 2001 Oct;52(1):63-75. PubMed PMID: 11530189.

13: Li BQ, Wetzel MA, Mikovits JA, Henderson EE, Rogers TJ, Gong W, Le Y, Ruscetti FW, Wang JM. The synthetic peptide WKYMVm attenuates the function of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 through activation of formyl peptide receptor-like 1. Blood. 2001 May 15;97(10):2941-7. PubMed PMID: 11342415.

14: Li BQ, Fu T, Dongyan Y, Mikovits JA, Ruscetti FW, Wang JM. Flavonoid baicalin inhibits HIV-1 infection at the level of viral entry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Sep 24;276(2):534-8. PubMed PMID: 11027509.

15: Mikovits JA, Young HA, Vertino P, Issa JP, Pitha PM, Turcoski-Corrales S, Taub DD, Petrow CL, Baylin SB, Ruscetti FW. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 upregulates DNA methyltransferase, resulting in de novo methylation of the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) promoter and subsequent downregulation of IFN-gamma production. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Sep;18(9):5166-77. PubMed PMID: 9710601; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC109102.

16: Mikovits JA, Taub DD, Turcovski-Corrales SM, Ruscetti FW. Similar levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human TH1 and TH2 clones. J Virol. 1998 Jun;72(6):5231-8. PubMed PMID: 9573296; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC110106.

17: Derse D, Mikovits J, Ruscetti F. X-I and X-II open reading frames of HTLV-I are not required for virus replication or for immortalization of primary T-cells in vitro. Virology. 1997 Oct 13;237(1):123-8. PubMed PMID: 9344914.

18: Turley JM, Fu T, Ruscetti FW, Mikovits JA, Bertolette DC 3rd, Birchenall-Roberts MC. Vitamin E succinate induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1997 Mar 1;57(5):881-90. PubMed PMID: 9041190.

19: Mikovits JA, Hoffman PM, Rethwilm A, Ruscetti FW. In vitro infection of primary and retrovirus-infected human leukocytes by human foamy virus. J Virol. 1996 May;70(5):2774-80. PubMed PMID: 8627751; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC190134.

20: Derse D, Mikovits J, Waters D, Brining S, Ruscetti F. Examining the molecular genetics of HTLV-I with an infectious molecular clone of the virus and permissive cell culture systems. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 May 1;12(1):1-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 8624755.

21: Ouaaz F, Ruscetti FW, Dugas B, Mikovits J, Agut H, Debré P, Mossalayi MD. Role of IgE immune complexes in the regulation of HIV-1 replication and increased cell death of infected U1 monocytes: involvement of CD23/Fc epsilon RII-mediated nitric oxide and cyclic AMP pathways. Mol Med. 1996 Jan;2(1):38-49. PubMed PMID: 8900533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2230037.

22: Fong SE, Pallansch LA, Mikovits JA, Lackman-Smith CS, Ruscetti FW, Gonda MA. cis-acting regulatory elements in the bovine immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Virology. 1995 Jun 1;209(2):604-14. PubMed PMID: 7778292.

23: Derse D, Mikovits J, Polianova M, Felber BK, Ruscetti F. Virions released from cells transfected with a molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I give rise to primary and secondary infections of T cells. J Virol. 1995 Mar;69(3):1907-12. PubMed PMID: 7853532; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC188805.

24: Mikovits JA, Meyers AM, Ortaldo JR, Minty A, Caput D, Ferrara P, Ruscetti FW. IL-4 and IL-13 have overlapping but distinct effects on HIV production in monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1994 Sep;56(3):340-6. PubMed PMID: 7916030.

25: Li CC, Ruscetti FW, Rice NR, Chen E, Yang NS, Mikovits J, Longo DL. Differential expression of Rel family members in human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected cells: transcriptional activation of c-rel by Tax protein. J Virol. 1993 Jul;67(7):4205-13. PubMed PMID: 8510222; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC237790.

26: Hoffman PM, Dhib-Jalbut S, Mikovits JA, Robbins DS, Wolf AL, Bergey GK, Lohrey NC, Weislow OS, Ruscetti FW. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection of monocytes and microglial cells in primary human cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 15;89(24):11784-8. PubMed PMID: 1465399; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC50641.

27: West M, Mikovits J, Princler G, Liu YL, Ruscetti FW, Kung HF, Raziuddin. Characterization and purification of a novel transcriptional repressor from HeLa cell nuclear extracts recognizing the negative regulatory element region of human immunodeficiency virus-1 long terminal repeat. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 15;267(35):24948-52. PubMed PMID: 1459999.

28: Mikovits JA, Lohrey NC, Schulof R, Courtless J, Ruscetti FW. Activation of infectious virus from latent human immunodeficiency virus infection of monocytes in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct;90(4):1486-91. PubMed PMID: 1401081; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC443195.

29: Raziuddin, Mikovits JA, Calvert I, Ghosh S, Kung HF, Ruscetti FW. Negative regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in monocytes: role of the 65-kDa plus 50-kDa NF-kappa B dimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Nov 1;88(21):9426-30. PubMed PMID: 1946356; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC52730.

30: Mikovits JA, Raziuddin, Gonda M, Ruta M, Lohrey NC, Kung HF, Ruscetti FW. Negative regulation of human immune deficiency virus replication in monocytes. Distinctions between restricted and latent expression in THP-1 cells. J Exp Med. 1990 May 1;171(5):1705-20. PubMed PMID: 2332735; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2187891.

31: Twardzik DR, Mikovits JA, Ranchalis JE, Purchio AF, Ellingsworth L, Ruscetti FW. Gamma-interferon-induced activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta by human monocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;593:276-84. PubMed PMID: 2115757.

32: Ruscetti FW, Mikovits JA. Differential regulation of the two IL-2-binding proteins. Physiological consequences. Year Immunol. 1989;5:38-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 2652929.

33: Ruscetti FW, Mikovits JA, Kalyanaraman VS, Overton R, Stevenson H, Stromberg K, Herberman RB, Farrar WL, Ortaldo JR. Analysis of effector mechanisms against HTLV-I- and HTLV-III/LAV-infected lymphoid cells. J Immunol. 1986 May 15;136(10):3619-24. PubMed PMID: 2422259.

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